Translations may not always be accurate.
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A nonverbal learning disability, by name, is confusing. Identifying and meeting the needs of the individual is equally challenging. Sometimes referred to as NLD or NVLD, a nonverbal learning disability is a neurological disorder which originates in the right hemisphere of the brain. Reception of nonverbal or performance-based information governed by this hemisphere is impaired in varying degrees, causing problems with visual-spatial, intuitive, organizational, evaluative, and holistic processing functions. 

Turner Syndrome is a spectrum disorder and each person will have a unique set of strengths and weaknesses. Many are gifted verbally, which may overshadow underlying weaknesses, and will have average to above average intelligence. 

There is still so much more we need to LEARN about Turner.  The answer is through RESEARCH.

Learning Overview

Dr. Dean Mooney
Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities
School Interventions:

Research (B.P. Rourke) has shown that a significanly high percentage of the individuals diagnosed with Turner Syndrome exhibit the strengths and weaknesses seen in individuals diagnosed with a Nonverbal Learning Disability.

Nonverbal Learning Disability is a term used to describe a specific learning profile.  It is characterized by a number of cognitive strengths and challenges that impact a child’s success in the academic and social settings.

What is accomplished in the resource room as the result of appropriate, and specialized instruction is nothing short of magic.  Having the right list of strategies and instructional interventions is the key to working this magic. Read more... 

Non Verbal Learning Disabilities (NVLD/NLD)
Adapted from Elizabeth Kenny-Foggin, MS, MA

Diagnosis is difficult since the compensatory mechanisms of advanced speech and memorization skills imply a normal educational aptitude. However, as the child matures and learning becomes more dependent upon abstractions, particularly in areas of non-verbal ability such as spatial, motor, and social relationships, this deficit becomes more apparent. Read more

Reading - The Hallmark to Success
Elizabeth Kenny-Foggin, M.S., M.A., OG--TT (IMSLEC)

Why does a child struggle to plan, organize and execute work expectations when other students of the same age are on task? Students with identified learning differences often have not yet developed strong strategies and supports because their brain pathways are still developing. The first challenge a student may face when brain pathways are still “under construction” is struggling to handle work expectations independently. The frontal lobe of a human brain is where executive functions are located. Students with underdeveloped frontal lobes do not possess the automatic skills needed to complete a complex task, like reading an entire book, independently.
Print workbook: Reader's Campanion Guide

Writing - A Means of Expression and An Academic Requirement
Elizabeth Kenny-Foggin, M.S., M.A., OG--TT (IMSLEC)
Edited by: Suzanne Bousquet, PsyD

Girls, teenagers, and young women diagnosed with Turner Syndrome (TS) often must deal with academic challenges such as pressure to work within a limited timeframe.   Often educators must cover specific subject areas, and the curriculum is presented without sufficient time for application, discussion and practice. Parents and teachers working with girls and women with TS have expressed exasperation over the numerous policies and procedures endorsed by government policy makers, unsupported by research and education professionals. Today, it is common for schools to provide curriculum that “touches upon” academic concepts. This trend leaves a trail of students behind “in the dust,” including girls and women with TS. Though this “old school” thinking is not aligned to current research findings --- research that identifies the importance of using neuroscience evidence in educational settings needs to become “mainstream” and part of the educational culture. Until that time, children and adults with TS need to learn and experience academic success, and need a plan to be “on target” with research. 


LD Online is a good resource for information about Nonverbal Learning Disability.
Helpful articles include:
Students with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities
Students with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Study of Learning Disabilities and Social Adaptation
Developing an Educational Plan for the Student with NLD
Facial Expressions and NLD
Nonverbal Learning Disorders: What To Look For
Nonverbal Learning Disorders

Additional Resources for Educators can be found on the Educators Resource Page.
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The Turner Syndrome Foundation, Inc. website(s) is designed for educational purposes only and is not intended to serve as medical advice. The information provided on this site should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. It is not a substitute for professional care. If you have or suspect you may have a health problem, you should consult your health care professional.